Offshore North Carolina Visualization Study

turbineBackground: During BOEM’s North Carolina offshore wind planning process, the need for accurate representations of offshore wind turbines to help evaluate potential visual impacts became apparent.

In cooperation with the National Park Service, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) contracted with Mangi Environmental Group and its subcontractors, T.J. Boyle Associates and LPES, Inc., to undertake a visualization study. This effort involved the creation and development of photo documentation, photomontages and videos to provide an accurate representation of the appearance of offshore wind facilities from a variety of locations along the coast of North Carolina. 

In total, 234 offshore wind turbine simulations were created. Each simulation consists of an array configuration of 200 turbines and utilizes 1,000-meter turbine spacing. The simulations included: 

  • 18 different locations (from Corolla Lighthouse to Sunset Beach);
  • Four lighting conditions (morning, afternoon, starlit night and misty nights);
  • Three distances (10, 15, and 20 nautical miles [nm] from shore); and
  • Two turbine models (Siemens 3.6 MW and Vestas 7 MW).

An overview location map of this information can be found here

This effort also included an analysis of the meteorological conditions along the coast of North Carolina.  This analysis was an integral part of the study. The report can be found here.

A presentation outlining the technical aspects of the study can be found here.

Photo and Video Simulations: Below are two matrices with links to the photo simulations and the 30-second video simulations.  The matrices show each simulation’s viewing location, distance from the viewing location, the lighting condition, and the turbine type simulated.

Matrix of Photo Simulations Conducted In North Carolina  
 

Location

Lighting Condition –> Closest Turbine –> Turbine Model

Morning

Afternoon

Starlit

Misty (Foggy)

 

10nm

15nm

20nm

10nm

15nm

20nm

10nm

15nm

20nm

10nm

15nm

20nm

001 Corolla Lighthouse

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

002 Beach at Duck

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

003 Kitty Hawk

 

 

 

  S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

004 Coquina Beach

 S / V

 S  / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

005 Bodie Island Lighthouse

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

006 Cape Hatteras Lighthouse

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

007 Lighthouse Beach (Buxton)

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

008 Ocracoke Beach

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

009 Portsmouth Lifesaving Station

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

010 Long Point Camps

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

011 Great Island Camps

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

012 Cape Lookout Lighthouse

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

013 Cape Point

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

014 Atlantic Beach

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

015 Bald Head Island

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

016 Oak Island

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

017 Holden Beach

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 

 

 

018 Sunset Beach

 

 

 

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

   

 

 

 

 

 S= Siemens SWT-3.6-107 (3.6MW) 
V= Vestas V-164 7.0 MW*
*Vestas as recently released that the V-164 will have a 8.0 MW capacity with no changes to the turbines dimensions.

Note: The simulation is properly printed on an 11" X 17" sheet at actual size.  If viewed on a computer monitor, use the highest screen resolution. The simulated image is at the proper perspective when viewed at 23.5" from the eye, or at a distance of approximately twice the image height.

Below is a matrix with links to the 30 second video simulations.  The matrix shows the viewing locations, distance from the viewing location, the lighting condition and the turbine type simulated.

Matrix of Video Simulations Conducted In North Carolina


Location

Lighting Condition -> Closest Turbine -> Turbine Model

Morning

Afternoon

Starlit

Misty (Foggy)

 

10nm

15nm

20nm

10nm

15nm

20nm

10nm

15nm

20nm

10nm

15nm

20nm

001 Corolla Lighthouse

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

002 Beach at Duck

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

003 Kitty Hawk

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

004 Coquina Beach

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

005 Bodie Island Lighthouse

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

006 Cape Hatteras Lighthouse

 

 

 

 S / V

 

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

007 Lighthouse Beach (Buxton)

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

008 Ocracoke Beach

 S / V

 

 S / V

 

 

 

 S / V

 

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

009 Portsmouth Lifesaving Station

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

010 Long Point Camps

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

011 Great Island Camps

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

012 Cape Lookout Lighthouse

 S / V

 

 S / V

 

 

 

 S / V

 

 S / V

 S / V

 

 S / V

013 Cape Point

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

014 Atlantic Beach

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

015 Bald Head Island

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

016 Oak Island

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

017 Holden Beach

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

018 Sunset Beach

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 S= Siemens SWT-3.6-107 (3.6MW)
V= Vestas V-164 7.0 MW*
*Vestas as recently released that the V-164 will have a 8.0 MW capacity with no changes to the turbines dimensions.

 Visualization Specifications/Scenario Used in the Simulation  

  • Turbines simulated: Siemens SWT-3.6-107 (3.6 MW) and Vestas V164 7.0 MW
  • Height of turbine at nacelle: 262 ft. for Siemens SWT-3.6-107 and 345 ft. for Vestas V164 7.0 MW
  • Height at highest point (highest blade tip): 460 ft. (Siemens SWT-3.6-107) and 613 ft. (Vestas V164 7.0 MW)
  • Rotor diameter: 351 ft. (Siemens SWT-3.6-107) and 538 ft. (Vestas V164 7.0 MW)
  • Above-water support structure: Monopole that is 20 ft. at the waterline, or as specified for turbine model
  • Height and dimensions of electrical service platform:100ft x 200ft with steel superstructure platform supported by six (6) 4 ft. diameter jacketed frame piles that is 40 ft above MWS with an enclosed 85 ft x 185 ft transformer housing building 50 ft. above the platform
  • WTG number: 200 WTGs
  • Array layout: Random within a rectangle of OCS blocks, approximately 1000 meters apart
  • Distance from viewing point: Array type at 10 nm, 15 nm, 20 nm
  • Color of WTGs: Off-white (5% grey)
  • Lighting: Standard FAA and USCG lighting for this type of obstruction using FAA Advisory Circular AC 70/7460-1K and AC 150/5345-43F (current FAA standards and USCG standards for marine navigation lighting)