Non-Energy Marine Minerals Legal Framework
U.S. Capitol dome.
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) (43 U.S.C. 1331, et. seq.) provides the authority to manage minerals on the Outer
Continental Shelf (OCS). The Department of the Interior’s (DOI’s)
jurisdiction for leasing and regulating the recovery of minerals
extends to the subsoil and seabed of all submerged lands seaward of
state-owned waters to the limits of the OCS (except where this may
be modified by international law or convention or affected by the
Presidential Proclamation of March 10, 1983, regarding the Exclusive
Economic Zone [EEZ]). The OCSLA does not authorize BOEM to issue
prospecting permits or leases to private interests in the EEZ of a
commonwealth or territory of the United States.
BOEM regulations governing non-energy mineral prospecting,
leasing, and production are in 30 CFR Parts 580 (Prospecting), 581
(Leasing), and 582 (Production). BSEE regulations, largely related to
suspension of operations, information collection and inspection, and
certain other authorities, are in 30 CFR Parts 280 and 282. Public Law 103-426 (enacted into law in
October 1994) authorized noncompetitive agreements for OCS sand, gravel, and shell resources for
specific uses by Federal, State and local government agencies and for use in a construction project
funded in whole or in part or authorized by the Federal government.
Noncompetitive Agreements for Use of OCS Sand, Gravel and Shell Resources
Public Law 103-426 (43 U.S.C. 1337(k)(2)), allows the Bureau to negotiate, on a noncompetitive basis,
the right to use OCS sand, gravel, or shell resources for shore protection, beach or wetlands restoration
projects by Federal, State or local agencies, or for use in construction projects funded in whole or in part
by or authorized by the Federal government. Section 8(k) of the OCSLA (43 U.S.C. 1337(k)) requires a
competitive bidding process before issuing leases to obtain commercial construction material.
In March 2016, BOEM published a proposed rule that would create a new part in the Code of Federal
Regulations (30 CFR Part 583) to codify existing policies for noncompetitive agreements for the use of
OCS sand, gravel, and shell resources, and to provide additional clarity and certainty for its Marine
Minerals Program regarding such uses (81 Fed. Reg. 15190, Mar. 22, 2016). The comment period for this
proposed rule closed on May 23, 2016; BOEM is currently reviewing comments received.
The proposed rule (see citation below for www.regulations.gov) describes the negotiated,
noncompetitive agreement process for qualifying projects, and codifies new and existing procedures for
accessing OCS sand, gravel and shell resources.
The proposed rule would not materially change existing requirements for negotiated agreements to use
these OCS minerals in coastal restoration and construction projects and would not impose additional
compliance obligations or costs upon the regulated entities. The proposed rule would not apply to
competitive leasing of minerals, such as sand for private or commercial use or commodity minerals such
The proposed rule would set out detailed requirements for the information that must be submitted with
a request for a negotiated agreement for qualifying projects, including technical information on the
potential sand borrow site and environmental information. This information is necessary to assist BOEM
in its evaluation of the project and in consultations with Federal agencies, such as the National Marine
Fisheries Service, on potential impacts from the project. The proposed rule would also address BOEM’s
review process for such requests, identify the timelines for requesting lease modifications, and define
commonly used terms.
The proposed regulation and comments submitted during the comment period in 2016 may be viewed
on www.regulations.gov by entering “Negotiated Noncompetitive Leasing for the Use of Sand, Gravel
and Shell Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf” in the search field or BOEM-2010- 0041, and the
Regulation Identifier Number (RIN) 1010-AD90.
Federally Funded and Authorized Projects and Shore Protection, Beach or Wetlands Restoration Projects (Noncompetitive Negotiated Lease Agreements)
In addition to the laws and regulations outlined above, the BOEM Marine Minerals Program must also comply with numerous environmental statutes, regulations and executive orders to carry out its mission. BOEM's Division of Environmental Assessment (DEA) reviews marine mineral program National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and OCSLA reports; provides oversight, policy guidance, and assistance for compliance with NEPA and other environmental laws and regulations affecting OCS sand, gravel, and shell activities; and participates in international conventions and treaty activities. The BOEM DEA website outlines the legal requirements and environmental policies and procedures that apply to OCS Leasing. Where available, links are provided to other websites with the full text of the laws, relevant regulations, and guidance issued by other agencies.
Prospecting, Research and Commercial Purposes (Competitive Lease Agreements)