Renewable Energy Research Completed Studies

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Atlantic Science Year in Review 2021

This year in review presents the studies completed in 2021 in support of BOEM’s Offshore Renewable Energy Program along the Atlantic coast. The studies represent a broad spectrum of research and monitoring to address a variety of environmental concerns and issues. This review represents a snapshot of the ongoing and completed studies funded in whole or in part by BOEM.

 

 

 


Past Atlantic Science Years in Review:

 


BOEM-funded research continues to contribute to the growing body of scientific knowledge on the marine environment and informs BOEM's decision-making regarding renewable energy planning, leasing, and development efforts. Take a look at the completed studies to learn more:

Acoustics in the Marine Environment 

Baseline Bioacoustic Characterization for Offshore Renewable Energy Development in the North Carolina and Georgia Wind Planning Areas (2015)

  • Collecting background acoustic data of species presence using passive acoustic monitoring at two locations along the Atlantic Coast

Characterization and Potential Impacts of Noise Producing Construction and Operation Activities on the Outer Continental Shelf: Data Synthesis (2014)

  • Baseline sound data collected from Nantucket Sound and Delaware Wind Energy Area for one year

Documenting fish response to seismic surveying and establishing a baseline soundscape for reefs in Onslow Bay, North Carolinas (2018)

  • Evaluating baseline sound and observing fish responses to sound

Effects Of Pile Driving Sounds On Non-Auditory Tissues Of Fish (2013)

  • Laboratory experiments exposing marine species of fish to various levels of sound

Evaluating Acoustic Technologies to Monitor Aquatic Organisms at Renewable Sites (2013)

  • Comparing capabilities and constraints of a variety of acoustic technologies

Underwater Hearing Sensitivity in the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea): Assessing the Potential Effect of Anthropogenic Noise (2012)

  • Determining leatherback turtle hearing sensitivity range

Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop Summary Report (2014)

  • Examining current and emerging technologies for reducing sound generated during certain ocean activities

Birds and Bats 

Abundance and Distribution of Seabirds Off Southeastern Massachusetts, 2011-2015 (2016)

  • Results from aerial surveys in the Massachusetts and Rhode Island wind energy areas

Acoustic Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Abundance of Birds Near Outer Continental Shelf Structures: Synthesis Report (2014)

  • Evaluating the use of acoustic monitoring technology for monitoring and mitigation at offshore wind facilities

Additional Statistical Analyses to Support Guidelines for Marine Avian Sampling (including Appendix A and B); Appendix CAppendix DAppendix E (2018)

    • Examining the number of surveys required for selected avian species to evaluate habitat use in defined areas of the Atlantic outer continental shelf using power analysis

    Aerial Surveys for Roseate and Common Terns South of Tuckernuck and Muskeget Islands July-September 2013 (2014)

    • Collecting baseline data about roseate terns off Massachusetts

    Assessing movements of birds using digital VHF transmitters: A validation study (2021)

    • Evaluating the use of nanotag technology to observe bird interactions with offshore wind turbines.

    Building a Database to Assess the Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Renewable Energy Projects on the Atlantic OCS (2013)

    • Providing an index to determine the vulnerability of 177 species of birds observed on the outer continental shelf to bird strikes by wind facilities and displacement

    Collision and Displacement Vulnerability among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure (2016) (2016)

    • Determining vulnerability of marine birds to renewable energy infrastructure.

    Compendium of Avian Occurrence information for The Continental Shelf Waters Along The Atlantic Coast of The United States: Final Report (Database Section – Shorebirds) (2011)

    Compendium of Avian Occurrence information for The Continental Shelf Waters Along The Atlantic Coast of The United States: Final Report (Database Section-Seabirds) (2009)

    • Provides a synthesis of observations of seabirds and shorebirds along the Atlantic Coast for 177 species including maps of sightings per unit effort

    Determining Fine-scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid- Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry (2017)

    • Using satellite telemetry to track migration patterns of Northern Gannets, Surf Scoters, and Red-throated Loons.

    Determining Night Time Distribution of Long-tailed Ducks Using Radio Telemetry (2009)

    Determining Nocturnal Locations, Breeding Ground Locations, and Genetic Structure of Long-Tailed Ducks Wintering in Nantucket Sound (2013)

    • Using radio telemetry of long-tailed ducks to learn more about their use of Nantucket Sound as habitat

    Flight Activity and Offshore Movements of Nano-Tagged Bats on Martha’s Vineyard, MA (2017)

    • Using nano-tag transmitter technology and a network of receivers to investigate the risk of offshore wind energy development to the Northern Long-eared Bats on Martha's Vineyard.

    High-resolution Aerial Imaging Surveys of Marine Birds, Mammals, and Turtles on the US Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf—Utility Assessment, Methodology Recommendations, and Implementation Tools (2013)

    • Comparison of traditional aerial survey methods with new high-resolution videography for evaluating presence, distribution, and abundance in marine waters

    Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities (2013)

    • Synthesis of observations of bats in the offshore environment along the Atlantic coast with emphasis on locations off Maine

    Mobile Avian Survey Data Collection Software Application (2016)

    Modeling At-Sea Density of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning Appendix AAppendix BAppendix CAppendix D (2018)

    • Provides easily understandable information in the form of maps of distribution and abundance of birds to aid offshore wind development siting decisions and reduce the risk of impacts to birds.

    Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning Phase I Report (2016)

    • Distribution of 40 seabirds along the Atlantic OCS using model predictions

    New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2011)

    • Using a variety of technologies including tags and direct observations of three species of concern along the Atlantic Coast

    Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 (2014)

    • Collecting baseline information about seabirds and marine mammals along the Pacific coast

    Pelagic Seabirds off the East Coast of the United States 2008-2013 (2015)

    • Observations of seabirds from ships of opportunity

    Risk of an Offshore Wind Project to a Migrant Shorebird (2016)

    • Modeling the risk of collision for red knots in Nantucket Sound

    Statistical Analyses to Support Guidelines for Marine Avian Sampling (2012) 

    Tracking Movements of Migratory Shorebirds in the U.S. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Region (2021)

    • Describing migratory movements of multiple shorebird species

    Tracking Movements of Threatened Migratory rufa Red Knots in U.S. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Waters (2018) (2018)

    • Using nanotag technology to evaluate the use of the outer continental shelf by Red Knots

    Tracking Offshore Occurrence of Common Terns, Endangered Roseate Terns, and Threatened Piping Plovers with VHF Arrays (2019)

    • Appendices A-K 
    • Using nanotag technology to determine the fine scale movements of listed species

    Cultural and Archaeological Resources 

    A Guidance Document for Characterizing Native Hawaiian Culture Landscapes (2017)

    • Providing guidance in identifying cultural landscapes.

    A Guidance Document for Characterizing Tribal Cultural Landscapes (2015)

    • Process for identifying areas of tribal significance

    A 'Ikena I Kai (Seaward Viewsheds): Inventory of Terrestrial Properties for Assessment of Marine Viewsheds on the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands (2017)

    • Collating onshore locations that may be affected by views of offshore renewable energy structures.

    Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy Development: Geophysical Mapping and Identification of Paleolandscapes and Historic Shipwrecks Offshore South Carolina (2019)

    • Collating onshore locations that may be affected by views of offshore renewable energy structures.

    Battle of the Atlantic:  A Catalog of Shipwrecks off North Carolina’s Coast from the Second World War

    • Describing and cataloguing shipwrecks sunk during the Second World War

    Collaborative Archaeological Investigations and Sound Source Verifications within the Massachusetts Wind Energy Area (2013)

    • Evaluating data collection equipment, methods, and sound source intensity from the equipment used for archaeological investigations

    Developing Protocols for Reconstructing Submerged Paleocultural Landscapes and Identifying Ancient Native American Archaeological Sites in Submerged Environment (2020)

    Evaluation of Visual Impact on Cultural Resources/Historic Properties: North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, and Florida Straits (2012)

    Evaluation of Visual Impact on Cultural Resources/Historic Properties: North Atlantic, Mid-Atlantic, and Florida Straits: Volume II. Appendices (2012)

    • Summary of historic properties along the Atlantic coast that may be affected by offshore wind development under section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act

    Inventory and Analysis of Archaeological Site Occurrence on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2012)

    • Database of known marine archaeological sites on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Inventory and Analysis of Coastal and Submerged Archaeological Site Occurrence on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (2013)

    • Database of known marine archaeological sites on the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf

    Marine Magnetic Survey Modeling: Custom Geospatial Processing Tools for Visualizing and Assessing Marine Magnetic Surveys for Archaeological Resources (2014)

    • Tool for processing magnetic survey data

    Maryland Collaborative Archaeological Survey (2016)

    • Assessing locations of archaeological sites within the Maryland Wind Energy Area

    New York Collaborative Archaeological Survey

    • Investigating anomalies in geophysical data from the New York bight to determine the presence of shipwrecks

    North Carolina Collaborative Archaeological Survey: Kitty Hawk Wind Energy Area (2017)

    • Reconnaissance-level archaeological survey of portions of the Kitty Hawk WEA

    North Carolina Collaborative Archaeological Survey: Wilmington East and West Wind Energy Areas (2020)

    • Baseline archaeological survey in the vicinity of the Wilmington East and West Wind Energy Areas

    The Unseen Landscape: Inventory and Assessment of Submerged Cultural Resources in Hawaii (2016)

    • Identifying and collating submerged cultural resources.

    Virginia Collaborative Archaeological Survey (2015)

    • Assessing locations of archaeological sites within the Virginia Wind Energy Area

    Economics 

    Atlantic Region Wind Energy Development: Recreation and Tourism Economic Baseline Development (2012)

    • Synthesis of economic information for selected coastal counties for use in determining effects from offshore wind development

    Economic Impact from Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon (2015)

    Economic Impact of Large-Scale Deployment of Offshore Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology in Oregon Coastal Counties (2015)

    • Evaluating the economic impact from the scenario of developing 13,000 MW of electricity from deployment of marine hydrokinetic devices off the coast of Oregon

    Energy Market and Infrastructure Information for Evaluating Alternate Energy projects for the OCS Atlantic and Pacific Regions - Volume 1: Technical Report (2013)

    Energy Market and Infrastructure Information for Evaluating Alternate Energy projects for the OCS Atlantic and Pacific Regions - Volume 2: Appendices (2013)

    • Providing an overview of energy markets and energy infrastructure along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts

    Evaluating Benefits of Offshore Wind Energy Projects in NEPA (2017)

    • A discussion and guide for National Environmental Policy Act document preparers to use to incorporate benefits from offshore wind development.

    Floating Offshore Wind in California: Gross Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios (2016)

    Floating Offshore Wind in Hawaii: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios (2016)

    Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios (2016)

    Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts in Oregon Coastal Counties from Two Future Scenarios (2016)

    • Analysis of scenarios to determine the economic impact of Floating wind developments to state economies

    Oregon Offshore Wind Site Feasibility and Cost Study (2019)

    • Assessing the present and future costs of floating offshore wind technology deployment in the state of Oregon at commercial scale

    Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs (2016)

    • Assessing offshore wind power technologies and the present and future costs of offshore wind in the state of California

    Survey and Assessment of the Ocean Renewable Energy Resources in the US Gulf of Mexico (2020)

    Electromagnetic Fields 

    Assessment of Potential Impact of Electromagnetic Fields from Undersea Cable on Migratory Fish Behavior, Period Covering January 2014 - June 2016 (2016)

    • Evaluating the effects of electromagnetic fields on migratory fish in San Francisco Bay

    Current Ability to Assess Impacts of Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies on Marine Fishes in Hawaii (2015)

    • Assessing effects for electromagnetic fields on marine fishes

    Electromagnetic Field Impacts on American Eel Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables

    • Observing responses of Eels to a High-Voltage Direct Current cable in Long Island Sound

    Effects Of EMF From Transmission Lines On Elasmobranchs And Other Marine Species (2011)

    • Literature synthesis and model validation of effects from electromagnetic fields on marine life

    Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Impacts on Elasmobranch (shark, rays, and skates) and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables (2018)

    • Field measurements and modeling of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from high voltage direct current (HVDC) cables and field observations of response to the fields by the American Lobster and Little skate Under Fates and Effects,

    Evaluation of Potential EMF Effects on Fish Species of Commercial or Recreational Fishing Importance in Southern New England (2019)

    • Summarizing the current knowledge about the effects of EMF on fish for use in National Environmental Policy Act assessments

    Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation (2016)

    • Comparing distribution of marine life on and around cables that are both electrified and dormant

    Environmental Fates and Effects 

    A Parametric Analysis and Sensitivity Study of the Acoustic Propagation for Renewable EnergyAppendix D (2020)

    • Analysis of pile driving acoustics and sensitivity to parameters such as water depth  

    Coastal High Frequency Radar Wind Turbine Interference Mitigation

    • Developing a software solution to remove interference from offshore wind turbines.

    Comparison of Environmental Effects from Different Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations (Updated August 2021)

    • Using existing data about turbines and the marine environment to compare effects from different turbine foundations

    Environmental Risks, Fate and Effects of Chemicals Associated with Wind Turbines on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2013)

    • Evaluating the risks of chemical spills under various scenarios at offshore wind facilities using three locations along the Atlantic coast as examples

    Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices, Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters (2015)

    • Findings and recommendations based on a literature review of surrogate structures to determine whether wave and tidal devices will create artificial reefs or become fish attracting devices

    Field Observations During Offshore Wind Structure Installation and Operation, Volume I 

    • Measuring pile driving sound during the installation of two turbines off the coast of Virginia with one pile attenuated

    Field Observations During Wind Turbine Installation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island (2019)

      Field Observations During Wind Turbine Operations at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island (2019)

      Field Observations during Wind Turbine Foundation Installation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island : Appendix AAppendix CAppendix DAppendix E1Appendix E2Appendix E3Appendix F (2018)

      • Observations of activities during the installation of foundations at the Block Island Wind Farm including airborne and underwater sound; seafloor disturbance and recovery; and testing of scour monitors.

      Impact Assessment and Mitigation of Offshore Wind Turbines on High Frequency Coastal Oceanographic Radar (2018)

      • Developing mitigation for interference in HF radar measurements from offshore wind turbines.

      Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report (2017)

      • Case studies of environmental impacts from European wind facilities including physical processes, underwater noise, benthic ecology, fish and shellfish ecology, seabirds, and marine mammals.

      National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Impact-Producing Factors in the Offshore Wind Cumulative Impacts Scenario on the South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2021)

      • Providing a framework for the evaluation of cumulative effects in environmental assessments.

      National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Impact-Producing Factors in the Offshore Wind Cumulative Impacts Scenario on the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2019)

      • Providing a framework for the evaluation of cumulative effects in environmental assessments.

      Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm (2017)

      • Direct measurements and observations during the laying of cable from Rhode Island to Block Island

      Offshore Wind in the US Gulf of Mexico: Regional Economic Modeling and SiteSpecific Analyses (2020)

      Radar Interference Analysis for Renewable Energy Facilities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2020)

      • Provides potential radar interference mitigation solutions for land-based systems impacted by offshore wind development and a summary of how atmospheric phenomenon or "ducting" influences these impacts.

      Underwater Acoustic Monitoring Data Analyses for the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island (2019)

      • Observing the installation of wind turbine structures and early operation at the Block Island Wind Farm.

      Wind Turbine Generator Impacts to Marine Vessel Radar

      • Evaluating the interference of wind turbine generators on marine vessel radar conducted by the National Academy of Sciences

      Environmental Mapping 

      Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting - Final Report (2013)

      Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting - Technical Manual (2013)

      • Using Bayesian techniques to provide a tool to evaluate offshore areas in the context of ecosystem services that considers the interaction and relationships between ecological, social and economic systems

        Comprehensive Seafloor Substrate Mapping and Model Validation in the Atlantic

        • Use field observations to calibrate and validate modeling of seafloor structure.

        Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands (2016)

        • Mapping the distribution of species in the Hawaiian Islands.

        Oregon OCS Seafloor Mapping: Selected Lease Blocks Relevant to Renewable Energy (2017)

        • Mapping the seafloor and subseafloor geology at a potential renewable energy site.

        The Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas, Data and Tools for Understanding Ocean Space Use in Washington, Oregon and Hawaii (2015)

        • Documenting where coastal communities use the ocean across a full range of typical human activities and sectors

        Environmental Monitoring 

        Benthic and Epifaunal Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island – Project Report

        • Appendix
        • Monitoring benthic disturbance and fouling on the wind turbines at Block Island Wind Farm for three years

        Benthic Habitat Characterization of the Pacific Northwest, Volume 1: Evaluation of Continental Shelf Geology (2014)

        Benthic Habitat Characterization of the Pacific Northwest, Volume 2: Evaluation of Continental Shelf Benthic Communities (2014)

        • Characterizing benthic habitat at five locations along the Washington, Oregon, and Northern California coasts

        Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island (2018)

        • Providing guidance and tools for conducting pre-construction surveys for marine species including birds, marine mammals, and fish

        Benthic Monitoring During Wind Turbine Installation and Operation at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island – Year 2 (2019)

        • Developing monitoring protocols to evaluate the alterations of the seafloor due to the presence and growth on wind turbine foundations.

        Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship (2012)

        • Providing guidance and tools for conducting pre-construction surveys for marine species including birds, marine mammals, and fish

        Ecological Baseline Studies of the US Outer Continental Shelf

        • Surveying off the coast of North Carolina for birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles

        Evaluation of Lighting Schemes for Offshore Wind Facilities and Impacts to Local Environments (2013)

        • Recommending best management practices for lighting of offshore structures that maintain safety while minimizing the effects on the marine environment

        Hydrodynamic Modeling, Particle Tracking and Agent-Based Modeling of Larvae in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic Bight

        • Using coupled models to evaluate the effects of the presence of wind turbine structures on larval transport

        Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region (2015)

        • Synthesizing the concerns of fishermen about offshore wind development and recommending a research agenda

        Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2017)

        • Developing and testing methodologies for finding munitions and explosives on the seafloor.

        Seafloor Disturbance and Recovery Monitoring at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island - Summary Report (Year 6)

        • Continuation of seafloor recovery monitoring at the Block Island Wind Farm

        Seafloor Disturbance and Recovery Monitoring at the Block Island Wind Farm, Rhode Island – Summary Report

        • Observing the recovery of the seafloor after disturbance by offshore wind construction activities

        Use of Finite-Volume Modeling and the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System in Offshore Wind Energy Resource Planning (2016)

        • Using two storm events and a wind farm scenario to evaluate effects on ocean circulation and larval transport

        West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies (2012)

        • Providing a framework for determining baseline survey needs at wind, wave, and tidal proposed development locations

        Fish and Fisheries 

        Atlantic Fish Telemetry: Monitoring Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon and Commercial Finfish Habitat Use Offshore New York

        • Using telemetry to track the movements of sturgeon and other fish in the New York Lease Area.

        Benthic Habitat Mapping and Assessment in the Wilmington-East Wind Energy Call Area ; Appendices (2016)

        • Identification of hard grounds and shipwrecks within the Wilmington East Call Area

        Collaborative Fisheries Planning for Virginia’s Offshore Wind Energy Area (2016)

        • Identifying areas of the Virginia wind energy area used by local fisherman

        Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Northeast Wind Energy Areas (2017)

        • Establishes baseline benthic habitat characteristics for wind energy areas along the Atlantic coast.

        Fishing, Diving, and Ecotourism Stakeholder Uses and Habitat Information for North Carolina Wind Energy Call Areas (2013)

        • Synthesizing information from local stakeholders about the marine resources and local uses of proposed North Carolina wind energy areas

        Fishing/Offshore Wind Mitigation Measures Development Workshops

        Final Report on Best Management Practices and Mitigation Measures (2014)

        • Recommendations about best management practices and mitigation measures for offshore wind development from a series of workshops with fisherman

        Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region (2015)

        • Provides guidance for establishing a research strategy for both pre- and post- construction.

        Movement and habitat selection by migratory fishes within the Maryland Wind Energy Area and adjacent reference sites

        • Using telemetry to monitor movements of tagged fish in the Maryland Wind Energy Area

        Occurrence of Commercially Important and Endangered Fishes in Delaware Wind Energy Areas Using Acoustic Telemetry

        • Use acoustic telemetry to track movements and use of the Delaware Wind Energy Area

        Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the U.S. Atlantic (2017) Volume 1Volume 2

        • BOEM worked with the National Marine Fisheries Service to better understand fishing activity as it relates to areas of potential offshore wind energy development.

        Southern New England Juvenile Fish Habitat Research Paper (2017)

        • Providing habitat maps and distribution of key fish species off the coast of Massachusetts

        Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Lobsters and Crabs in the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area (2018 Update)

        • Provides a third year of surveys to develop a baseline for measuring the cumulative effects of wind development offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts.

        Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Lobsters and Crabs in the Rhode Island/Massachusetts Wind Energy Area(2016)

        • Develops a baseline for measuring the cumulative effects of wind development offshore Rhode Island and Massachusetts, as well as contribute to the assessment of the southern New England lobster stock, which is currently at a low level of abundance.

        Marine Mammals and Other Protected Species 

        Atlantic Marine Assessment Program for Protected Species: FY15 - FY19; Appendix I; Appendix II; Appendix III (2021)

        • Continuation of the Atlantic Marine Assessment Program for Protected Species (AMAPPS) which focuses on collecting seasonal data on the abundance, distribution, and behavior of marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds throughout the U.S. Atlantic.

        Atlantic Marine Assessment Program for Protected Species: 2010-2014Appendix IAppendix II-V; (2017)

        • Seasonal surveys of protected species on the outer continental shelf.

        California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of WindFloat and Wave Energy Areas (2014)

        • Baseline data collection at two proposed development sites off the Northern California coast

        Determining Habitat Use by Marine Mammals and Ambient Noise Levels Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring Offshore of Maryland (2019) Information Sheet

        • Deployment of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) array in the wind energy area located off the Maryland coast to describe marine mammal presence, distribution and seasonality.

        Evaluating the Accuracy and Detection Range of a Moored Whale Detection Buoy near the Massachusetts Wind Energy Area

        • Developing a methodology for real-time observations of whale presence.

        Inter-disciplinary Study of the Possible Link Between Space Weather, Geomagnetic Storms and Cetacean Mass Strandings (2018)

        • Using whale stranding data and geomagnetic information to determine if there are indications of cause and effect.

        Literature Search and Data Synthesis for Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles in the US Atlantic from Maine to the Florida Keys (2012)

        • Detailed summary of marine mammal and sea turtle occurrence and life history along the Atlantic coast

        Megafauna Aerial Surveys in the Wind Energy Areas of Massachusetts and Rhode Island with Emphasis on Large Whales: Interim Report Campaign 6A, 2020

        • Continuation of aerial surveys for protected species to evaluate seasonal distribution and abundance.

        Megafauna Aerial Surveys in the Wind Energy Areas of Massachusetts and Rhode Island with Emphasis on Large Whales: Summary Report Campaign 5, 2018-2019 

        • Continuation of aerial surveys for protected species to evaluate seasonal distribution and abundance.

        Northeast Large Pelagic Survey Collaborative Aerial and Acoustic Surveys for Large Whales and Sea Turtles (2016)

        • Observing marine mammals and sea turtles over a three year period in the Massachusetts and Rhode Island wind energy areas

        Optimization of Towed Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) Array Design and Performance Study (Passive Acoustic Monitoring Study)

        • Developing a tool to assess towed passive acoustic system design used to listen for marine mammals 

        Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 (2014)

        • Collecting baseline data about seabird and marine mammal distributions at selected locations along the Northern California, Oregon, and Washington coasts

        Risk Assessment to Model Encounter Rates between Large Whales and Vessel Traffic from Offshore Wind Energy on the Atlantic OCSVessel Risk Calculator: Graphical User Interface User’s Manual: Vessel Risk Calculator

        • Determining risk of vessel strikes for large whales 

        Understanding Whale Presence in the Virginia Offshore Wind Energy Area (2019)

        • Deployment of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) array in the wind energy area located off the Virginia coast to describe marine mammal presence, distribution and seasonality.

        Physical Environment 

        Data Gathering Process: Geotechnical Departures for Offshore Wind Energy (2018)

        • Clarifying the geotechnical data gathering process

        Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Development Assessment (2021)

        • Assessment of the technological, environmental, and financial issues related to the development of floating offshore wind turbines on the Outer Continental Shelf.

        Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation Methodology Assessment for Siting Renewable Energy Facilities on the Atlantic OCS (2018)

        • Evaluating methods for providing geological information used in siting wind turbines.

        Metocean Characterization Recommended Practices for U.S. Offshore Wind Energy (2018)

        • Providing recommended practices for characterizing metocean data.

        Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Emission Estimating Tool Version 2.0 | User's Guide V2 | Technical Summary | Technical Documentation| Instructional Video (2017)

        • Quantifying emissions associated with the development, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of a proposed offshore wind farm.

        Development of Guidance for Lighting of Offshore Wind Turbines Beyond 12 Nautical Miles (2016)

        • Providing an evaluation of lighting and marking guidance for offshore wind turbines.

        Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Feasibility Mapping for the Outer Continental Shelf off the State of Oregon (2014)

        • Identify and rank areas off of Oregon for suitability for wind and wave renewable energy development

        Prediction of Wind Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf with Weather Models Task 1 (2011)

        Prediction of Wind Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf with Weather Models (Delaware Wind Energy Area) (2012)

        • Assessing the wind energy potential using a numerical weather model from the Delaware Wind Energy Area

        Potential Earthquake, Landslide, Tsunami and Geo-hazards for the U.S. Offshore Pacific Wind Farms (April 2020)

        • Provides an understanding of geohazard risks in areas under analysis for the development of potential future offshore wind farms in the Pacific. 

        Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs (2016)

        • Assessing offshore wind power technologies and the present and future costs of offshore wind in the state of California

        Regional Geophysical Survey and Interpretive Report for the Virginia Wind Energy Area offshore Southeastern Virginia (2013)

        Virginia Ocean Geophysical Survey Phase II Analyses: Offshore Virginia Wind Energy Area (2016)

        • Collecting broad scale geophysical data from the Virginia wind energy area and evaluating different processing and interpretation methods

        Roadmap: Technologies for Cost Effective, Spatial Resource Assessment for Offshore Renewable Energy (2014)

        • Assessing technologies for evaluating wind resources including LiDAR and CoDAR

        Synthesis, Analysis, and Integration of Air Quality and Meteorological Data for the Atlantic Coast Region (2014)

        Synthesis, Analysis, and Integration of Air Quality and Meteorological Data for the Atlantic Coast Region: Volume II: Technical Reference Manual for the Atlantic Region Air Quality Database (2014)

        Synthesis, Analysis, and Integration of Air Quality and Meteorological Data for the Atlantic Coast Region: Volume III: Data Analysis (2014)

        • Compiling existing information about air emission sources on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

        Social Science 

        Assessment of Seascape, Landscape, and Visual Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Developments on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States

        • Providing a methodology for assessing the visual impacts of offshore wind energy facilities.

        Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy Development: Values and Implications for Recreation and Tourism (2018)

        • Regional-level analysis of visual effects from offshore wind facilities on tourism and recreation

        Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii (2016)

        • Identifying the infrastructure needed for offshore renewable energy development on the Pacific coast and Hawaii

        Identification of OCS Renewable Energy Space-Use Conflicts and Analysis of Potential Mitigation (2012)

        • Identifying space use conflicts between renewable energy and other uses of the ocean on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts

        Methodology for Analyzing the Effects of Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) on Rhode Island Recreation and Tourism Activities (2018)

        • Evaluating different methodologies for determining the effects of offshore wind development on recreation and tourism using the Block Island Wind Farm as a case study.

        Resident Perceptions of Local Offshore Wind Energy Development: Support Level and Intended Action in Coastal North and South Carolina (2019)

        • Understanding what is important to communities, and how differing values and perceptions across communities influence local receptivity to proposed development.

        Supporting National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Energy Development Related to Navigation (2019)

        • Assessing the potential impacts associated with the development of offshore wind energy facilities on marine vessel navigation

        The Identification of Port Modifications and their Environmental and Socioeconomic Consequences (2016)

        • Examining ports along the Atlantic coast for their use in supporting offshore wind development and determining the modifications they may needed on selected ports

        Workshops and Literature Synthesis 

        Improving Monitoring, Data Consistency, Archiving, and Access for Improved Regional Integration of Renewable Energy Science Workshop Summary on Passive Acoustic Monitoring Data Standards and Management March 7 and 9, 2022

        • Bringing agencies together to discuss passive acoustic monitoring data standards and management

        Improving Monitoring, Data Consistency, Archiving, and Access for Improved Regional Integration of Renewable Energy Science Workshop Summary on Satellite and GPS Tracking of Avian Species

        • Bringing agencies together to discuss avian tracking methodologies

        Improving Monitoring, Data Consistency, Archiving, and Access for Improved Regional Integration of Renewable Energy Science Workshop Summary on Passive Acoustic Monitoring and Marine Mammals June 2-3, 2021  

        • Bringing agencies together to discuss passive acoustic monitoring methodologies

        Atlantic Ocean Energy and Mineral Science Forum (November 16-17, 2016)

        • Sharing of ongoing and recently completed studies with the public and acquiring input for future information needs.

        Atlantic Offshore Renewable Energy Development and Fisheries Proceedings of a Workshop - in Brief (2018)

        • Summarizing National Academy of Sciences subcommittee discussion on the research and monitoring needed to assess potential impacts from offshore wind turbine installation and operation on fisheries on the Altantic OCS.

        Atlantic Wind Energy Workshop-July 12-14, 2011 (2011)

        Best Management Practices Workshop for Atlantic Offshore Wind Facilities and Protected Species (March 7-9, 2017)

        • Discussing and identifying approaches for preventing, reducing, and monitoring impacts to marine protected species from the development of offshore wind on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf.

        Ecospatial Information Database:U.S. Atlantic Region (2014)

        • Georeferenced database for literature searches

        Effects Matrix for Evaluating Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Development on U.S. Atlantic Coastal Habitats and Supporting Spreadsheet (2017)

        • Supporting the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act evaluations of potential impacts from offshore wind facilities on coastal habitats

        Effects of Noise on Fish, Fisheries, and Invertebrates in the U.S. Atlantic and Arctic from Energy Industry Sound-Generating Activities, Workshop Report (2013)

        • Literature review and proceedings on effects of noise on fish, fisheries, and invertebrates.

        Literature Synthesis for the North and Central Atlantic Ocean (2011)

        • Collection of literature from the North and Mid-Atlantic to support renewable energy development

        Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience (2013)

        • Sharing of experiences from Europe in the areas of cultural resources, avian species, and benthic habitats

        Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Science Conference Proceedings (2013)

        • Identifying research and monitoring needs to determine environmental effects of offshore wind and wave technologies

        Phased Approaches to Offshore Wind Developments and Use of Project Design Envelope (2017)

        • Informs BOEM on how phased approaches and project design envelopes could be implemented for environmental reviews of offshore wind facility Construction and Operations Plans

        Potential Impacts to Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles from Offshore Wind Research Framework Workshop - Research Framework Workshop Proceedings(2019)

        A Framework for Studying the Effects of Offshore Wind Development on Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles (2019)

        • Developing a research framework to evaluate the effects of offshore wind development on protected species

        South Atlantic Information Resources: Data Search and Literature Synthesis (2013)

        • Collection of literature about the marine environment in the South Atlantic planning area to support energy development

        Update of Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast (2010)

        • Collection of literature about the marine environment for selected areas along the Pacific coast in support of energy development

        Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the OCS and Workshop (2007)

        Workshop: U.S. and International Electrical Safety Standards for Offshore Wind (June 2020)

        • BSEE and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recently commissioned the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory to convene a workshop to identify issues with offshore electrical safety. The proceedings, detailed in the Electrical Safety Standards Harmonization report, are recommendations from subject matter experts possessing specific skills vital to our understanding of offshore wind facility electrical design and safety.